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  • Globally, the primary mode of transmission is unprotected intercourse between men and women (World Health Organization report, 5/04).
  • Other means of transmission include:
    • Unprotected penetrative intercourse between men
    • Prostitution
    • IV drug abuse/shared needles
    • Unsafe injections/blood transfusions
    • Vertical transmission (mother to fetus during pregnancy, labor and delivery and breast-feeding)
  • Prevention measures include abstinence, safe sex practices (condoms), and needle exchange programs. 
  • Of all people age 15-49 years old worldwide, 1.1% are now infected with HIV.
  • More than 2 million women with HIV infection give birth each year.
    • 630,000 infants contract HIV infection from their mothers each year.
  • In 2003 alone: 
    • 4.8 million people became infected with HIV
    • Approximately 2.9 million people died of HIV
    • In North America, there were 16,000 AIDS related deaths
    • Approximately 490,000 children under 15 yrs old died of HIV/AIDS
  • In the US, nearly 950,000 people are living with HIV.
  • In Botswana, HIV affects 37.3% of all adults.
  • The nine countries with the most HIV-infected people include: South Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mozambique.
  • HIV/AIDS in Women:
    • Nearly half of all people living with HIV now are women; their infection rates in many regions are climbing much faster than men's.
    • In southern Africa, teenage girls are five times more likely to become infected than teenage boys.
    • In the Caribbean, 70% of new infections are in women.
    • Across the world, 17 million women are infected.
  • Without treatment, it takes 9-11 years for HIV infection to progress to full-blown AIDS.
  • Treatment coverage rates have been described as dismal. Despite progress, there is a huge gap between the number of people in developing countries who need treatment (4 to 8 million) and the number being treated (approximately 400,000).
  • By year end 2003: 
    • 34.6--42.3 million people worldwide were living with HIV
    • More than 20 million people worldwide had died of AIDS
    • 2.1 million children affected with HIV were under 15 years old

Primary Source:  New England Journal of Medicine; 7/8/04

Created: 7/23/2004  -  Donnica Moore, M.D.

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